Rohingya Society :Past and Present


Mutual respect is very important to maintain peace in a society, we need to refuse receiving or repeating rumors, extend only positive approaches, speak up on behalf of others, and avoid hurtful words. A word can brighten or blacken the face of a person who knows the value of words.
Human ideologies and faiths should serve the life of human society, morality, and progress. Faiths bring honor, peace, and self-respect of people in a society. Belief in resurrection, hereafter, or afterlife, demonstrates vital consequences for the life of society because it is fundamental to the society, personal life, happiness, prosperity and achievement. It can restrain people from aggression, oppression, destruction and ensure the tranquility of the society.
In the history of human societies and civilizations, we can find good and evil, dirty and clean, light and dark side by side. Society should take what is pleasant and leave what is distressing and turbid for the tranquility of the society.
Rohingya had a remarkable society based on Fara or village, Muhallah or ward, quarter, and Aelaka, town or township area. Rohingya society is called Samaaj or Samaaji which has a Sardar or leader but Sardar has no right to make any decision without consultation of respected members of the society.

For every particular event or incident, Sardar calls on Samaaj, respected members, discuss with them and makes decision. There are three types of consultations in Rohingya’s Samaaj society:

1. Firstly, Pan-Salla which is particularly for marriage and engagement; pan means betel-pan, and Salla means discussion. In this consultation, the host provides at least tea and betel-pan. Chewing betel-pan is Rohingya’s custom as well as Burmese custom. In the past, elders didn’t allow younger generation chewing betel-pan like now, only elderly people could chew.

2. Second type of consultation is Salla-Mashuwara; Salla means discussion and Mashuwara means suggestions. This type of consultation is held whenever society need to make an urgent decision for a particular event such as building a road or a bridge, appoint a new Imam in the Mosque, need help for the progress of the village etc.

3. The third type of consultation is called Bisaar, some people call it Insaaf. Bisaar means “decide and give just right”If a person want to claim his or her right from another person or group, he or she appeal Sardar to organize Samaaj , make a right decision, and announce the society. This type of consultation is held based on condition, urgent or delayit .
Rohingya Samaaj society was a solidarity which emphasized on unity, equality, justice and peace. Every year Rohingya need to change their roof of their house. In the past, they didn’t hire any particular carpenter or worker to build house or change old roofs oftheir houses with new one. Villagers helped for changing new roof stichednipa leaves into thatch.
From ancient time to 1970, Rohingya Samaaj society could make decisions to for the benefit of the society. During colonial period, British didn’t abolish Samaaj society, British took advantages of it.
Dictator Ne Win banned all activities of Samaaj in 1970 and started persecution regime has been persecuting Rohingya since 1970s, deprived all fundamental rights of Rohingya since 1970s that cause 1000s of Rohingya refugee all over the world.
Under persecution, oppression and restriction of Burmese regime, Rohingya people could not keep Samaaj society in active. Slowly percentage of educated person decreased that brought three main diseases into Rohingya society: ignorance, poverty and disunity.
Before British colonialism, there was no systematic education; no school, no university. British missionary groups built schools in the whole Burma. Before British colonialism and under British control, Rohingya learnt all social, moral, ethical and religious knowledge from Mali-saaf, religious person in Madrasa as Magh and Burmese learnt in the monasteries.
Until 1970, Rakhine were called Magh or Mog or Mugh, dictator Ne Win changed Magh to Rakhine, Arakan to Rakhine Sate, Akyab to sittwe, in order to conceal the reality.
http://loveandntolerance.blogspot.com/2012/10/rakhines-were-not-indigenous-race-of_26.html

Since 1970s, Rohingya’s diaspora started and Rohingya scattered all over the world. 1000s of Rohingya moved to central Burma because of persecution by authority since 1970s. After genocidal violence of June and October 2012, Rohingya in Arakan state of Burma,divided into three dire groups:

1. Rohingya whose houses were burnt down, properties were looted, relatives were killed, and brought into concentration camps, UN organizations and other INGOs provide rice and bean for them.

2. Rohingya who left their houses as military and police asked them to save their lived. They were helped by the villagers first 1-2months, later when villagers couldn’t help they became unregistered refugees who gets no aids from any organizations.

3. Rohingya who have houses, animals and properties, no Rakhine attacked them, but military and security forces block them on security excuses. In this group, there are three types of people:

a) Rich people, who have properties, can help people, and active, up to 4-6 months after violence, most of them became poor and can’t help other people. Some of them were arrested by police; some of them gave bribes to the security forces and went to Yangon or sailed to aboard.

b) Middle class people, who had business or farm lands, most of them became poor and semi-starving; some of them have their family members aboard who send some money for them to survive.

c) Workers, labors who hardly earned their income before, now, because of blockage, they are starving.

International communities should put pressure on Myanmar government to lift blockage immediately restore Rohingya’s own places and rights, help them academically, socially and financially. Rohingya are essential human resource of Burma who can serve building democratic and human right as infrastructure of Burma. Diversity is not main cause of Burma, State policy and discretionary laws are the main causes of all violence and #Genocide against #Christians and #Rohingya.
Sincerely,
@Aungaungsittwe Twitter Account 
Source:
http://www.twitlonger.com/show/n_1rmes1h

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Reasons of our social issues


Do you know why we have so many Social Issue, and even we know we do not talk about. and even sometimes we talk about but we not eradicate and practice good in our societies, Cultures and norms and values.

Affliction is mainly due to this we made our life so horrible by our own actions. We could live with water but in a single day we spent a lot on multiple drinks. and even without any knowledge what they have like ingredients or formula or chemical composition or organic or inorganic etc.

Similarly cloths, cars, even glass and shoes and chocolates 🙂
When we go beyond the necessity lines we are oppressor to the nature.
We could not defend or do justice or explain a single grain of rice we waste during any ceremony or event or a drink or a loaf or anything edible.

When you will look around we made our lives difficult ourselves.

The Celebrations the events and occasions,

The Religion make us understand to make all events and your life so simple. so simple and easy for you. But we are oppressor to ourselves and all our life our worryness are things.

This is an understanding and there is a fine line between necessity and not necessity. When we cross this line, we not only do wrong with ourselves we do wrong to others to as we are setting a pattern and a norm to be followed.

When in society each member like with responsibility care about these aspects. First and utmost you do justice with things and than you are doing a just with a society in terms of norms.

Especially in sub continent that is effected by natives 🙂

Are deeply effected by so many norms which are not part of any religion.

#Lie

#Backbite

#Dowry

#Bribery

#Dishonesty

#Unjust

#Social-issues

Stand with and Speak Truth

And this list goes on.

By closing eyes or not talking about facts is also not only negligence but also bad deed. We could start these practices from us and our life and our family and our society and hence forth we set examples.

Its a do die condition right now in right now time
Because if you do not start it with the next moment you read this writing you could never do it. And surely you could never do it if you could not begin it now. Everyone is surely living this life for once 🙂 a truth all know. and everyone have a very clear idea that no one knows the next moment is their last. 🙂

Things to do are live your life with honesty and without lies. Do not lie to you and do not let other speak lie to you. Its nothing about Ideal People or Ideal State or Ideal Society. We are all human beings. and humanity is a common relationship among all cultures norms and societies and values. And humanity taught us live with true values. and living with truth for a single breath is far better sleeping thousands of night with loud lies.

All about said is not connected to anyone other than yourself.
Honestly its not connected to anyone. Its only About You.
Its yours story
Its Really your and mine story
Its us who need to be honest with us.
The day you are honest with yourself you could not dishonest with anyone else.

Things to do live with truth.
Simplicity in nature as well we need to follow and practice simplicity in our lives and occasions and events. I am repeating it again and again as i felt and realize this is the common issue.

This is the major reason of the issues in societies as we do not want the truth. and we do not swallow the truth and we do not want to live with Truth.

Hard work and dedication comes with honesty and both said are part of a faith.

A thing i learned during the death of my grandmother:
All my life i was understanding faith. All happening and occurrence occur with the WILL of ALLAH. I was in pain and grief. Like if happiness comes from God. there is no doubt relief comes from GOD. I was in pain all that week but the moment we buried her and return from the grave yard there was  a piece from GOD. Happiness all our lives are blessed by ALLAH and surely the grief and after grief the soothe is also Come from God.

That makes your Faith more Firm on God Existence. and Make your connection to God more stronger. and these happiness and grieves make you more close to GOD.

This was so beautiful. Those moment you spent with the one who is about to meet GOD very soon.

I could remember those moments during unconscious of her I was holding her hand and praying to God for her. and a single final tear came out of her eyes and she was sleeping like a deep sleep. and those four to five hours of my life was like the best shot like the milestone when you send back your mother back to Creator hands in hands. Full of tears but surely prayers was about her next life and Praying all possible to ALLAH that O Allah take care of my mother as i have nothing remain.
And that moment i was only thinking that only bad things in mothers they die a day. Really a motherhood to a women after giving birth to a kid is blessed by God. but its very hard when you have to say Good Bye to your mother and surely at that moment I was thinking about Muhammad PBUH and His Mother RA, Her Death and tragic and grief he gone through.
Above all that is also a blessing to be very close to your elders and look after them and take care of them and Depart them with smiles and this is blessing. I realize few things more when a person is about to die, God cure her/him very close to the departure. All parameters get normal suddenly as Angel of Death is ready to take the soul out of the body. and surely when you pray to GOD. God shows you what all you want to see. and surely without any doubt this world is a place you can get whatever you want to have but with faith and with purity of prayers and connection to GOD.
Painful things could be bless and blissful.



And your Lord has decreed that you not worship except Him, and to parents, good treatment. Whether one or both of them reach old age [while] with you, say not to them [so much as], “uff,” and do not repel them but speak to them a noble word.

اورتمہارےپروردگارنےارشادفرمایاہےکہاسکےسواکسیکیعبادتنہکرواورماںباپکےساتھبھلائیکرتےرہو۔اگرانمیںسےایکیادونوںتمہارےسامنےبڑھاپےکوپہنچجائیںتواُنکواُفتکنہکہنااورنہانہیںجھڑکنااوراُنسےباتادبکےساتھکرنا

And lower to them the wing of humility out of mercy and say, “My Lord, have mercy upon them as they brought me up [when I was] small.”

اورعجزونیازسےانکےآگےجھکےرہواورانکےحقمیںدعاکروکہاےپروردگارجیساانہوںنےمجھےبچپنمیں(شفقتسے) پرورشکیاہےتوبھیاُن(کےحال) پررحمتفرما

Your Lord is most knowing of what is within yourselves. If you should be righteous [in intention] – then indeed He is ever, to the often returning [to Him], Forgiving.

جوکچھتمہارےدلوںمیںہےتمہاراپروردگاراسسےبخوبیواقفہے۔اگرتمنیکہوگےتووہرجوعلانےوالوںکوبخشدینےوالاہے

http://quran.com/17/23-25

My observations during that time are my ways for the rest of breaths. I wish and pray blessings on all who are gone to other world and all about to go and all will go surely 🙂

That day you listen this truth and you admit it how could it possible you do unjust with other !!! Really how could it possible you could lie and Really how could it be possible you could to bribery or dishonesty and backbite or live with arrogance or elegance or be elite when you are witness all those who were blessed were all poor and simple people. and when you are surely there is a next permanent life and in any next moment its about to come, how you could not be good in manners and values and ethics. How could you see people who are doing what and who are going where ? When you are not sure about the very next moment you will surely get ready with luggage you necessary for the hereafter and that luggage is nothing called objects or matters.

That Luggage is your deeds and actions. None of the machine manual or electronic could gauge your actions and deeds but they are purely as per purification reach to God and God is the Only who could and Who surely and Who Absolutely is the Best Returner of our actions and deeds.

A deed is a deed its could never be small or big.
For example for a person trillion of coins are everything and may be for a person sitting next those trillion of coins are nothing. so to God nothing is big or small God only see how pure and dedicated you are and how firm you are in faith to do a good deed even removing a tiny stone in middle of a road or even removing a thorn from someone cloths or road or guiding direction to someone who is lost or guiding or training how to write or read or any deed.

When you do thing without any expectation or return this is the job of Humans and this is called Humanity. Your pain is my pain and your grief is my grief and your son is my son and your problem is my problem. We know we could not resolve all issues but sometimes your single word worth those trillion coins.

You Will with the Will of God and Faith in God is they way you have to opt sooner or later as you are not sure about later so join it now. as they very next moment you could expect but you are not sure so Live it close to GOD as you come from God and eventually you have to meet God. After a Breath or after a wink of eye or a second or thousands of years. But surely and without any doubt none could confirm or assure you how many moments you are left with. Decision is your as well the life and breaths but none knows how much or how many. Decide it now and do the change you want from others. Be the Change You want from others and be others so other could be you. and try to stay close to God as He is surely close to every living or non living.

So worry about God not about people because first question is you not them. worry and think about you and the moment you conquer others will be good soon. this is the building block of any society.

Being units of human kind we need to do correct small things and sooner Huge things and Big things will be corrected by GOD. Again rectify the small matters that you could and rest will surely be fine. When you are correct and  on truth life you could surely decide good and bad. 🙂

I wish and Pray to God for all people that Allah Bless us with HIS blessings and Bliss and Mercy as He is Only Merciful and Beneficent.

God Bless you all.

رشتوں کو پامال کرتا عشق ممنوع


 We are real Muslim and our actions and deeds are our representation not what populated or broadcast by or on media by media owners. We are people of Pakistan and we are nation and we are the people of this world. We are the voice and we are the change. The First step is speaking and sharing and talking about the evil and bad going on. And remember its never too late. We have to begin this from somewhere and this somewhere is our-self and Thats Me for everyone. We need to use our-self for a purpose either spreading awareness and knowledge on all fronts as this is our home and we do not let this happen so easily but we raise our values norms and culture as this is our world and we are the rightful owner of this land. so spread the truth as evil has to die sooner or later and truth has to Rule the world and Light has to spread.
all we need to build our own media. We do not need to look for jobs as a purpose but we need to look for purpose and than a job. people are not joining media people who should bring the change like right in system and bringing the change.

At least speak and those days are not far when we gonna begin all in Islamic perspective or things or use media for TRUTH and awareness and not to live only for business and money and our Purposes will be our life and everything.

This is just a beginning when people are raising the voice. Awareness and speaking our evil is first step and soon we will end this regime of ignorance and begin and help people understand the new era of wisdom and knowledge and help to humanity rather only saying doing nothing. So pray and raise your voice and let other know the Truth and let them speak as one day these voice will touch the sky and these people have to quit and this media have to shut the bad and populate and broadcast good for masses. Purpose is our Truth and purpose is our Life and Faith.

ہمارے مُلک میں بڑے مُنظم طریقے سے ماڈرن ازم کے طور پر فحاشی و عُریانی کو فروغ دیا جارہا ہے۔۔۔۔۔۔
اندیشہ ہے کہ عریانی،فحاشی، بے حیائی اور نام نہاد روشن خیالی کا یہ سیل رواں ہماری پہچان ، ہمارا تشخص اور ہماری متاعِ ایمانی کو بہا کر نہ لے جائے۔
مغرب کا ’’تھنک ٹینک ‘‘الیکٹرانک اور پرنٹ میڈیا کے ذریعے مسلمان معاشرہ سے عصمت و پاکیزگی کو ختم کر نے ،ہماری حمیت ، ہماری غیرتِ ملی اور شناخت کے خاتمہ کے لیے اپنے تمام تر مادی ذرائع بروئے کار لا رہا ہے ۔

لہذا ضرورت اس امر کی ہے کہ شرم و حیاء کے فروغ کے لیے اللہ اور رسول اللہ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کے احکامات کو عوام الناس تک پہنچا یا جائے۔۔۔
اپنے گھروں کا ماحول ٹھیک کیا جائے،مادر پدر آزادی اور بے حیائی کا پرچار کرنے والے چینلز کو اپنے گھروں میں بند کیا جائے۔
ہمارے ملک میں میڈیا پر فواحش کی نشر اشاعت کے روک تھام کیلئے پیمرا نامی ایک ادارا بھی قائم ہے مگر اس ادارے کے ذمہ داران کی آنکھوں پر پردہ پڑ گیا ہے یا شائد ان کا تعلق ہی مادر پدر آزاد سوسائٹی سے ہے ۔۔بے غیرت حکمرانوں کے لئے تو یہ کوئی ایشو ہے ہی نہیں۔
ملک میں بڑھتی ہوئی فحاشی و عریانی کے خلاف تمام باشعور عوام کے علاوہ محراب و منبر سے بھی توانا آواز آنی چاہیے ،علماء کرام کی ذمہ داری بنتی ہے کہ اپنے خطبوں میں عوام کو فحاشی و عریانی کے مضر اثرات سے آگاہ کریں

رشتوں کو پامال کرتا عشق ممنوع
تاریخ: دسمبر 12, 2012 مصنف: اسریٰ غوری

آج پہلی بار ایسا ہوا تھا کہ بہت دیر تک صرف یہی سوچتی رہی کہ میں کہاں سے اور کیسے شروع کروں ؟

آج مجھے الفاظ کا چناوٴ انتہائی دشوار لگ رہا تھا شائد یہی وہ دشواری تھی جس کو ختم کرنے کے لیے ہمارا میڈیا نے دن رات ایک کیا ہوا ہے اور وہ اسی کوشش میں ہے کہ کسی کو بھی کچھ سوچنا نہ پڑے بلکہ جو جس کے جی میں آےٴ وہی کرے وہی بولے بس کوئی رکاوٹ حائل نہ ہو۔ اور ہر شخص مادر پدر آزاد ہو جاےٴ۔

آج ہمارا میڈیا ان احادیث نبوی ﷺ کی عملی تصویر بنا ہوا ہے  اور
جب تم میں حیا نہ رہے تو جو تمھارے جی میں آےٴ کرو۔ ﴿بخاری،مشکواة،باب الرفیق والحیاء﴾
یعنی حیا ہی دراصل وہ رکاوٹ ہے جو  انسان کو بر ے اور فحش کام کرنے سے روکتی ہے۔ میرے سامنے وہ تصویر کئی بار آئی جس میں اس وقت   ًعشق ممنوع ً کے نام سے چلنے والے ترکی کے مشہور اور حیا باختہ ڈرامے کی مذمت کی گئی میں نے چونکہ ڈرامہ نہیں دیکھا اس لیے اسکے بارے میں ذیادہ معلومات نہیں تھی مگر جب میں نے اسکے بارے میں تفصیلات معلوم کیں اور جو کچھ میں نے سنا اسکو بیان کرنے کے میرے پاس الفاظ نہیں۔

کون ہے جو اس تباہی کا اندازہ لگاے جو باقائدہ پلاننگ کے ساتھ صرف ہماری نئی نسل کو ہی نہیں بلکہ ہمارے خاندانوں کو کس پستی کی طرف دھکیلا جا رہا ہے  اور اس میدان میں ہمارے اپنے میڈیا نے کیا کم کارنامے انجام دیے ہیں؟ جس نے جنس مخالف کو بس ایک جنس پر کشش بنا کر پیش کیا۔

یہ بہت پرانی بات نہیں کہ ہمارے معاشرے میں بارہ تیرہ سال کا بچہ جو اپنے سے ذرا بڑی لڑکی کو باجی اور ایک تیس سے اوپر کی خاتون کو آنٹی کی نظر سے دیکھتا اور کہتا تھا آج میڈیا اسے سکھاتا ہے کہ بڑا اور چھوٹا کچھ نہیں ہوتا عورت صرف عورت ہوتی ہے جس میں صرف کشش ہوتی ہے اسے اسی نگاہ سے دیکھو اور اس سے کسی بھی عمر میں عشق کیا جاسکتا ہے۔ باجی، بہنا، سسٹر ، آنٹی، خالہ۔۔۔ یہ سب بس القابات ہیں انکے کوئی حقیقی معنیٰ نہیں۔۔۔

مجھے اس خوفناک صورتحال کا اندازہ تب ہوا جب کچھ عرصہ پہلے  مجھے سکول میں جاب کا شوق ہوا ﴿یہ کوئی گلی محلے کا اسکول نہیں بلکہ ایک منظم اور ہمارے یہاں کے ویل ایجوکیٹڈ کلاس سمجھے جانے والے ایک ادارے کا اسکول تھا﴾

میرا پہلا دن تھا کلاس دوم دی گئی تھی، بچے بچیاں سب ہی تھے سب سے تعارف ہوا جب پیریڈ ختم ہونے لگا کچھ بچے قریب آےٴ میں کاپیز چیک کرنے میں مصروف ایک آواز آئی۔۔۔ ٹیچر ۔۔۔
میں نے گردن اٹھاےٴ بغیر جواب دیا۔۔۔ جی بیٹا جان بولیے۔۔۔
مگر میرے ہاتھ سے پین گرا اور میں بہت دیر تک اسے اٹھانے کے قابل نہیں رہی۔۔۔ یہ کیا سنا تھا میرے کانوں نے ایک اور بچہ جو شاید اس بچے کے ساتھ تھا اس سے بولا۔۔۔ اوئے ہوےٴ دیکھ تجھے جان بولا ٹیچر نے۔۔۔ چل اب تو ایک پھول لا کر دے ٹیچر کو۔۔۔ دوسری جماعت کا وہ بچہ جو میرے اپنے بیٹے سے عمر میں چھوٹا اور شائد آٹھ سال کا تھا۔

ایک بار جی چاہا کہ زوردار تھپڑ لگاوٴں مگر اگلے ہی لمحے خیال آیا یہ معصوم ذہن انکا کیا قصور؟؟؟
تھپڑ کے مستحق تو وہ ماں پاب، وہ معاشرہ، وہ میڈیا ہے جس نے ان پاکیزہ اور فرشتہ صفت ذہنوں کو اسقدر پراگندہ کر دیا کہ رشتوں اور رتبوں کا تقدس سب جاتا رہا۔

مجھ میں مزید کچھ سننے کی سکت نہیں تھی۔۔۔میں دکھ اور افسوس کی کیفیت میں بریک میں بھی کلاس ہی میں بیٹھی رہی کہ اسٹاف روم جانے کی ہمت نہیں تھی ،اچانک میری نظر کھڑکی کے باہر کی جانب پڑی تو وہی بچہ ہاتھ میں پھول لیے کھڑا تھا اور اسکی دیکھا دیکھ اور کئی بچے اور بچیاں بھی ھاتھوں میں پھول لیے کلاس روم میں داخل ہوےٴ اور سب نے ٹیبل پر پھول رکھے اور کہا ۔۔ ٹیچر یہ آپ کے لیے ۔۔۔ اب وہ سب منتظر تھے کہ ٹیچر خوش ہونگی ۔ میں نے تھینکس کہا اور پڑھائی شروع کرادی۔

چھٹی ٹائم ایک بچی قریب آئی اور بڑے سلیقے سے سارے پھولوں کو سمیٹ کر گلدستہ کی شکل دے کر  میرے ہاتھ میں دیتے ہوےٴ بڑے لاڈ سے بولی ٹیچر یہ لیجانا مت بھولیےگا اس کے ساتھ باقی سارے بچے بھی میرے گرد جمع ہوچکے تھے میں نے وہ گلدستہ ہاتھ میں لیا اور کھلتے ہوےٴ رنگ برنگی پھولوں کو دیکھا پھر ایک نگاہ ان معصوم پھولوں پر ڈالی جنکی معصومیت، پاکیزگی کو کس بے دردی سے کچلا جا رہا ہے اور اس گلستاں کا مالی کسقدر بے خبر ہے۔ مالی تو اپنے باغ کے ایک ایک پھول سے باخبر ہوتا ہے اور کوئی پھول ذرا وقت سے پہلے مرجھانے لگے تو مالی کی جان پر بن آتی ہے مگر میرے گلشن کا یہ کیسا مالی ہے جس کو خبر ہی نہیں کہ اس کے باغ کو کو ئی اجاڑ رہا ہے برباد کر رہا ہے۔

دل ہمہ داغ داغ شد پنبہ کجا کجا نہم
﴾ ﴿سارا دل داغ داغ ہوگیا،پھاہا کہاں کہاں رکھوں

اس دن مجھے سمجھ آئی کہ  میڈ یا پر ایک انجن آئل کے اشتہار سے لیکر اور ایک روپے کی ٹافی تک میں عورت کی اس نمائش اور ڈراموں میں حیا سوز منظردکھاےٴ جانے کے اس نسل پر کیا اثرات مرتب ہو رہے ہیں۔

ہم تو ابھی انھیں زخموں کو سہہ نہیں پاےٴ تھے کے یہ ایک اور کاری ضرب اس لادین میڈیا نے ًعشق ممنوعہ ً کی صورت میں ہمارے رشتوں پر لگائی۔۔۔

بخدا مجھے اس لائن سے آگے لکھنے کے لیے اپنی ساری قوت جمع کرنی پڑی کہ
چچی اور بھتیجے کا رشتہ یا میرے خدایا۔۔۔
ماں کے برابر رشتے کی ایسے آبرو ریزی۔۔۔
یعنی اب ہمارے خاندانوں کے تقدس کو اس طرح پامال کیا جائیگا؟؟؟
ایک وقت میں کئی کئی عشق کیے جانے کا سبق ۔۔۔
کم عمر اور کچے ذہنوں کو کس بری طرح دلدل کی نذر کیا جارہا ہے۔۔۔

اور میری حیرانی کی انتہا نہیں رہی جب مجھے یہ پتہ چلا کے یہ ڈرامہ اس وقت کا مقبول ترین ڈرامہ بن چکا ہےاور بہت بے غیرتی کے ساتھ وہ مکمل ہونے جا رہا ہے۔ میں یہ سوچنے لگی کہ ہمارے میڈیا کو اپنی گندگی میں کمی محسوس ہوئی کہ اب ہم  پر دوسروں کی گند گیوں کو بھی انڈیلا جا رہا ہے۔

مگر شائد جب تک ہم غلط باتوں کو اسی طرح ٹھنڈے پیٹوں ہضم کرتے رہیں گے یہ یلغارہم پر یوں ہی جاری رہےگی اس لیے کیونکہ ہم میں﴿ تھرڈ کلاس﴾ تیسرے درجے کا ایمان بھی نہیں رہا کہ کم از کم ہم برائی کو برائی سمجھیں بلکہ ہم تو اسکی تاویلیں تلاش کرنے لگتے ہیں، مجھے بھی ایسی تاویلیں سننے کو ملیں کہ اس ڈرامے کا انجام بہت برا دکھایا گیا ہے اور سبق آموز ہے مگر آپ یہ یاد رکھیے  برائی کی تشہیر برائی کو کئی گناہ بڑھانے کا تو باعث بن سکتی ہے مگر اس میں کمی کا سبب ہرگز نہیں بن سکتی اسی لیے برائی کی تشہیر کا نہیں اس کو دبا دینے کا حکم ہے۔

رب کی وہ تنبیہ بھی یاد کر لیجیے
جو لوگ اہل ایمان میں بیحیائی کو پھیلانا چاہتے ہیں ان کے لیے دنیا اور آخرت میں دردناک عذاب ہے۔ ﴿النور؛  ١۹ ﴾

اور  مجھے خوفزدہ کر دیا حدیث نبوی ﷺ کے ان الفاظ نے کہ
الله تعالیٰ جب کسی بندے کو ہلاک کرنا چاہتا ہے تو اس سے حیا چھین لیتا ہے۔

میرا دل خوف سے ڈ وبنے لگا کہ کیا ہمارے لیے بھی فیصلہ کرد دیا گیا؟؟؟
کیا ہم پر بھی بے حیا وٴں کی مہر ثبت ہو گئی۔۔۔
اس سے آگے میں کچھ نہیں سوچ پائی۔۔۔

آپ اگر سوچ سکیں تو ضرور سوچیں اس سے پہلے کہ سوچنے کی مہلت بھی نہ ملے۔۔۔
http://www.qalamkarwan.com/2012/12/rishtoon-ko-pamal-karta-eshiq-mamno.html 

Family System And Mother


Family System And Mother

Family system is a basic entity and building block of a society and a nation. If we have to build a nation we have to build our family system and strengthen our roots and take good care of family system. This is the beauty of Family System that we can see in east and west.

Beautiful and pure relations are blessing of God.

A mother
A father
Daughters
Sons
Sisters
Brothers

And many other relatives and a hierarchy and tree on right and left and up and down. Everyone from top to bottom connected. and very strongly rooted.

Every aspect is full of memories as well every entity have its own responsibilities. This family System is home of norm and values and ethics that enrich a new comer in this society or a single family enrich with all ingredients required to shape up his/her character and make it look a healthy and vibrant and ethical and social member of society. as well the education the very basic ingredients of this Family Systems.
Like every system This Systems has input from all members and reflects to all members as combine as well collective output.
As well educational point of view there is a physical as well spiritual and a cultural touch to each member. And these all ingredient together make a single entity a glowing star and a bench mark of branches of science and culture or civilization.

This family system is a representation of the each member and a furnace that mold and farm that cultivate new generation as per the custom and culture of the Family System.

A good Family System Build a nation and a nation can be destroyed by destroying the family system.

The only fact i seen in decline of Civilizations or Nations is decline of their family system in different time with different ways.

As per my understanding its a very basic building block of a society and culture and rest norms and ethics and morals raised under this basic block.

In different part of world we see a different set of Family Systems. 

In East A father is the head and mother is the co head of the state 🙂 and there role may be swap and as per my understanding i seen the women of east more powerful than any women or family system.

Islam as a religion give an equal rights to women as to men. And being the head or co head both have equal responsibilities either a mother or father.

Going down to hierarchy to Sister/Brothers or Daughters/Sons.

There are no words to define the beauty of these relationships as they crossest of times and very pure in terms and matters. and in terms of understanding a sisters or a brother understand each-other very well. Like they care each other during the life tenure. Best Friends i can say and best friend those help each other in all even and odds of times. and help irrespective of the state of life and depth or measure of the trouble.

Similarly in Above hierarchy A Mother.

A mother is the most beautiful and tender and home of compassion from God to the human kind as well in animals and plants and all creatures.

Purest form of Love in all sort of relationship is mother’s love and God given importance to mother in this system of family and cycle of a family system.

Mother is home of love and purity and emotions and deeply attached with kids and to her as well to father all their lives even kids are also old but to them they will always be kids.

To the world a kids could be anything but to a mother he/she will be always a sign of love and affection and devotion and her attachment will be so pure. like the Purest things present in forms or existence thats Mother love.

One More aspect Prophet Muhammad PBUH said thrice with importance to take care and look after about Mother, Mother and Mother.

Mother love is a topic you can write all life and aspects but there is no end of its purity in nature.

Under the Umbrella every relation with any entity define different but very beautiful and superb relations in definitions as well in ways of making this system a perfect system.

Every member under the Family system is equally responsible to care each other with ways possible as well towards helping and resolving issues.

Mother is princes to her hubby and a ruler to kids and benchmark to daughter. And mothers may have many languages but very common language they owns is language of pure love. in all creatures they have this language very common. No Matter what but their Love is common and always have same warmth what so ever is the season or time 🙂

To make a perfect nation all you need a mother.
A mother is pivotal or subtle pillar or unit of a family system and hence forth a nation.

Every being have a mother and every being have a responsibility to return the blessing of mother by his/her good manner and behavior to her. She will never ask you to bring stars or miracles all she wants your betterment and prosperity for this life as well after life. I wish and pray to everyone have a family and above all a mother that can make a nation full of feelings and responsibility and strive for wisdom and knowledge.

What all we speak and write or delivers are our heart and soul to the world or the loved ones or the ones or groups so let it go out to people with very good of manners and behavior and attitude. So before worrying about anything outer or even health be so much worry about the heart and soul because you can hide all but you can never hide what you have right in your heart. Today or tomorrow you have to flood the surroundings with the words you never spoken or said. so All you need to worry about the world right in your heart. They day you conquer the inner outer will be not more than a step ahead.

Keep remember all mothers and parent in prayers and stay tight with your sister and brothers and siblings and be human as you are part of humankind and humankind should and must have humanity.

Humanity is the above relationships and races and colors and religion.

Read More:

Mother the biggest gift of Allah to us:Women and Islam

Men and Women Equality and Women

Humanity is mother of all Emotions

Family System And Mother


Family System And Mother

Family system is a basic entity and building block of a society and a nation. If we have to build a nation we have to build our family system and strengthen our roots and take good care of family system. This is the beauty of Family System that we can see in east and west.

Beautiful and pure relations are blessing of God.

A mother
A father
Daughters
Sons
Sisters
Brothers

And many other relatives and a hierarchy and tree on right and left and up and down. Everyone from top to bottom connected. and very strongly rooted.

Every aspect is full of memories as well every entity have its own responsibilities. This family System is home of norm and values and ethics that enrich a new comer in this society or a single family enrich with all ingredients required to shape up his/her character and make it look a healthy and vibrant and ethical and social member of society. as well the education the very basic ingredients of this Family Systems.
Like every system This Systems has input from all members and reflects to all members as combine as well collective output.
As well educational point of view there is a physical as well spiritual and a cultural touch to each member. And these all ingredient together make a single entity a glowing star and a bench mark of branches of science and culture or civilization.

This family system is a representation of the each member and a furnace that mold and farm that cultivate new generation as per the custom and culture of the Family System.

A good Family System Build a nation and a nation can be destroyed by destroying the family system.

The only fact i seen in decline of Civilizations or Nations is decline of their family system in different time with different ways.

As per my understanding its a very basic building block of a society and culture and rest norms and ethics and morals raised under this basic block.

In different part of world we see a different set of Family Systems. 

In East A father is the head and mother is the co head of the state 🙂 and there role may be swap and as per my understanding i seen the women of east more powerful than any women or family system.

Islam as a religion give an equal rights to women as to men. And being the head or co head both have equal responsibilities either a mother or father.

Going down to hierarchy to Sister/Brothers or Daughters/Sons.

There are no words to define the beauty of these relationships as they crossest of times and very pure in terms and matters. and in terms of understanding a sisters or a brother understand each-other very well. Like they care each other during the life tenure. Best Friends i can say and best friend those help each other in all even and odds of times. and help irrespective of the state of life and depth or measure of the trouble.

Similarly in Above hierarchy A Mother.

A mother is the most beautiful and tender and home of compassion from God to the human kind as well in animals and plants and all creatures.

Purest form of Love in all sort of relationship is mother’s love and God given importance to mother in this system of family and cycle of a family system.

Mother is home of love and purity and emotions and deeply attached with kids and to her as well to father all their lives even kids are also old but to them they will always be kids.

To the world a kids could be anything but to a mother he/she will be always a sign of love and affection and devotion and her attachment will be so pure. like the Purest things present in forms or existence thats Mother love.

One More aspect Prophet Muhammad PBUH said thrice with importance to take care and look after about Mother, Mother and Mother.

Mother love is a topic you can write all life and aspects but there is no end of its purity in nature.

Under the Umbrella every relation with any entity define different but very beautiful and superb relations in definitions as well in ways of making this system a perfect system.

Every member under the Family system is equally responsible to care each other with ways possible as well towards helping and resolving issues.

Mother is princes to her hubby and a ruler to kids and benchmark to daughter. And mothers may have many languages but very common language they owns is language of pure love. in all creatures they have this language very common. No Matter what but their Love is common and always have same warmth what so ever is the season or time 🙂

To make a perfect nation all you need a mother.
A mother is pivotal or subtle pillar or unit of a family system and hence forth a nation.

Every being have a mother and every being have a responsibility to return the blessing of mother by his/her good manner and behavior to her. She will never ask you to bring stars or miracles all she wants your betterment and prosperity for this life as well after life. I wish and pray to everyone have a family and above all a mother that can make a nation full of feelings and responsibility and strive for wisdom and knowledge.

What all we speak and write or delivers are our heart and soul to the world or the loved ones or the ones or groups so let it go out to people with very good of manners and behavior and attitude. So before worrying about anything outer or even health be so much worry about the heart and soul because you can hide all but you can never hide what you have right in your heart. Today or tomorrow you have to flood the surroundings with the words you never spoken or said. so All you need to worry about the world right in your heart. They day you conquer the inner outer will be not more than a step ahead.

Keep remember all mothers and parent in prayers and stay tight with your sister and brothers and siblings and be human as you are part of humankind and humankind should and must have humanity.

Humanity is the above relationships and races and colors and religion.

Read More:

Mother the biggest gift of Allah to us:Women and Islam

Men and Women Equality and Women

Humanity is mother of all Emotions

The education system in Muslim societies


Ibn Khaldun
11/3/2012 – Science Education – Article Ref: MI1211-5319
Number of comments:
By: Abdesselam Cheddadi
The Message of Islam* –

At first sight, the place held by education in Ibn Khaldun’s sociology appears uncertain to say the least. What today we understand by the term ‘education’-the replication of individuals and groups, firstly at the level of values and secondly at that of knowledge and know-how-is found in the Muqaddima only in a scattered and incomplete fashion, in an order and pattern whose meaning escapes us at first sight. More important, Ibn Khaldun makes no use of a general concept in speaking of education. This is all the more surprising as he accustoms us elsewhere to a systematic approach to the main phenomena of life in society. However, upon closer view we discover that this ambiguity and these lacunae in fact reflect the state of the Muslim system of education, and we are forced to admit that, in this field as in many others connected with the knowledge of Muslim society, Khaldun’s contribution is the most complete at our disposal.
The education system in Muslim societies

The education system in Muslim societies was without a doubt one of the most extensive and most developed of all those prevailing in pre-industrial societies, which was due to the very nature of Muslim society itself. Compared to agro-literate societies contemporary with it, Muslim society stands out for its more flexible and less hierarchically organized structures. The body composed of scholars and the literati was open, non-centralized, non-hereditary, non-exclusive, with a fluid organization that implied no formal hierarchy,3 thus giving rise to a relatively broad education and teaching system that in many ways prefigured our modern systems.4
Like the society itself, the education system was both segmented and unified. It was a reflection of the profound separation between the rural and urban worlds: agrarian or agro-pastoral communities of peasants and stock-breeders on the one hand, and an urban society of merchants, artisans, clerics and State civil servants on the other. And, at the same time, it was unified by the common adherence to Islam, identification with which was tangibly represented by the universal Koranic teaching that was virtually obligatory for all. Though education was informal and imparted by the family and the community in rural areas and among the urban poor, there was formal schooling for the children of the mercantile, clerical and political Žlite.
Children were frequently placed under a tutor or received longer, more diversified instruction in a school that went well beyond the teaching of the Koran and the rules of religious practice. Independently of this education of children and without any structural connection between the two, there was also vocational teaching to prepare the learned for various professions. Theoretically available to all, covering all fields of knowledge both ancient and Muslim, homogeneous in its methods, it came to form part of institutions only on a partial basis and at a late date.5 It is within this educational setting that the madrasa (college), the model of the medieval university in France and Italy and of the English ‘college’6-which was later to give rise to the modern university-came into being. This basic education, religious above all, and this system of the replication of scholars, was paralleled by what could be called a system of general adult instruction. In Islamic thought, education, which here takes in religion and morals, is a process that ends at no determined stage or age but lasts an entire lifetime, as expressed in the saying attributed to the prophet Muhammad: ‘Learn science from the cradle to the grave’. Such figures as that of the literate man (adib), the pious man, the fakir or dervish, and that of the burgher or governor consorting with the learned, so typical of Muslim society, owed a great deal to this system of general instruction based on such institutions as the mosque or the zaouia, and carried forward by such people as the sermon-writer (khatib, wa iz), the poet, the religious reformer or the saint, and by a vast literature of popularizations made up of literary anthologies, encyclopedias, local or general histories, biographical dictionaries, pious works, mystical treatises, etc.
The educational and cultural Islamic system led to the production of an abundant literature setting forth its organization and functioning, analyzing its standards and values. Philosophers such as al-Farabi7 and Miskawayh8 proposed a theory of education whose end was to allow human beings to reach the perfection proper to their nature. At another level, al-Mawardi9 proposed an education program reconciling worldly and religious interests, and al-Ghazali,10 in his celebrated Ihya’ ulum al-din [The Revival of the Religious Sciences], formulated a theoretical basis and devised a practical method for attaining the religious ideal of the good Muslim. All these educational theories, in line with a tradition that goes back to Graeco-Roman antiquity, are interested in the human being per se, considered in every aspect of his or her being. They do not concentrate on a particular stage of human life or a particular type of instruction or institution; they lay down a number of fundamental educational principles, though in a subsidiary and cursory manner: the restrained use of authority and corporal punishment, the need to awaken the child’s interest, the value of example, and progression in learning. Above all, they insist on the importance of the pedagogical relationship and define the respective roles and duties of master and student.
Thus, in Islamic thought education was perceived as a matter that, during infancy, devolved upon the family, especially the father, whereas in adulthood it became the individual’s own responsibility. Yet no clear awareness of a unified system of education as a fundamental component of the social system bringing together all aspects of the replication of individuals and groups had come into being. The accent was placed rather on the individual soul, which had to be corrected (taqwim), improved (tahdhib), reformed (islah) and healed of its sickness (mudawat). General concepts such as ta’dib (educate) or talim (instruct) concerned individuals and comprised acts or relations involving person-to-person relationships. There was no generic term designating education as a social institution or the education system as a set of institutions, practices and items of knowledge, which in any case was not specific to Muslim society. Such a concept, together with the reality behind it, is closely linked to the emergence of modern nations and States, one of whose principal duties is in fact to manage and develop education.11
THE REPRODUCTION OF VALUES
Faithful to the general position he takes in the Muqaddima, that of a ‘science of human society’, (ilm al-ijtima al-insani), Ibn Khaldun approaches education neither as a philosopher, a religious thinker, a moralist nor as a jurist-the four approaches adopted by Muslim thinkers who considered the phenomenon of education-but as a sociologist and historian. Yet, while his approach faithfully reflects the fundamental structural features of the Islamic education system (separation of the rural world from the urban world, discontinuity between the training of the person and training for a trade, and the cowardly and badly structured character of educational institutions), it does not apprehend the education system as forming a whole. The aspects of education that we would today classify under the reproduction of values are scattered throughout those chapters of the Muqaddima devoted to social organization and dynamics, power, and rural and urban ways of life. On the other hand, the aspects involving training, knowledge and know-how are brought together in the two successive chapters dealing with the arts and sciences.
The well-known concept of asabiyya, generally rendered as esprit de corps, solidarity or cohesion, is rarely seen other than from the sociological standpoint. But it also has to do with the world of values. It may even be said that this concept is the underlying value in tribal society, as it is the source of all forms of cohesion in a society organized according to an interlocking principle. The foundations of asabiyya are what Ibn Khaldun calls nura (kinship), the feeling of affection for and attachment to close relatives and all who are of the same blood.12
When a relative suffers an injustice or is attacked one feels humiliated and leaps to his or her defense in the same natural reflex that causes one to reciprocate aggression against oneself. Ibn Khaldun calls it a natural tendency that has always existed in human beings. It transmits itself spontaneously from one generation to the next and needs to be neither learned nor taught. It is to be found at the deepest level of a sort of instinct of preservation. But Ibn Khaldun admits that the relations that people are forced to maintain between themselves out of vital necessity are orderly and obey rules and laws. One of the functions of thought is to ‘allow people to acquire, through their dealings with their fellows, knowledge of what they must do and what they must not do, of what is good and what is evil’.13
Thanks to ’empirical intelligence’ individuals are capable of discovering for themselves the rules and values that must guide their acts and their social life; but, as Ibn Khaldun points out, this would take too much time, ‘as everything that depends on experience requires time’.14 A much shorter way lies in imitating one’s parents, teachers and elders in general. Ibn Khaldun thus poses the problem of the reproduction of values at the most general level, placing himself at the point of view of the individual, however, not that of society, without considering the social function of the reproduction of values as such. He fails here to disengage himself from a general attitude we find in philosophers, religious thinkers and moralists, one that might be called ‘edifying’.
Individual improvement and salvation are the aims here, requiring the acquisition of certain forms of behavior and the assimilation of certain rules and values. Ibn Khaldun does not state exactly which ones, but it can safely be affirmed that he means here what Muslim thinkers commonly call the adab, ways of doing, social conventions or rules of behavior. The adab reach into all fields of human activities and behavior. They have been codified down to the smallest details, as can be seen in al-Mawardi and al-Ghazali, forming a part of that broad, permanent moral and religious mechanism for human education referred to above.
In other respects, Ibn Khaldun adopts an approach that could without hesitation be described as sociological. It can be illustrated by three examples-examples in which he analyses the courage of rural folk, the corruption of urban dwellers and the phenomenon of imitation.
Courage is a cardinal virtue among country people, he observes. They have neither militia nor walls nor gates. They see to their own defense, bearing arms and keeping themselves on the alert at all times. In them, therefore, ‘daring has become a character trait, and courage second nature’. Among townsmen, however, this virtue is nearly absent since they are brought up in a state of dependence, sheltered behind their walls and protected by their militia and their governors; they are used to peace and comfort. In addition, their spirits are weakened and their courage annihilated by the weight of the constraints imposed on them by ‘governmental and educational laws’.15
Corrupt morals are virtually inescapable for urban dwellers. An affluent life leads to the search for pleasure, the appearance of new habits and of new needs. These become increasingly difficult to satisfy, particularly when dynasties decline and taxes become heavier. Townspeople use any means, good or bad, to cope, ineluctably entering ‘the ways of immorality’.16 In rural areas, on the other hand, a life of making do with necessities constantly calls for control over appetites. The vices and defects that can be acquired are few compared to those of townspeople, and country people remain close to their original natural state and are more inclined to good.17
Imitation is held by Ibn Khaldun to be a general phenomenon: the dominated always imitate those who dominate them. This is true of children vis-ˆ-vis their parents, pupils vis-ˆ-vis their teachers, subjects vis-ˆ-vis their princes and dominated nations vis-ˆ-vis dominant nations; it holds true as much for custom and behavior as for all aspects of civilization. Ibn Khaldun finds the explanation for this phenomenon in the fact that the dominated believe in the perfection of those who dominate them.18
In all three examples the question of values and their transmission is no longer presented as an exclusively individual matter. The courage of rural folk, like the corrupted morals of townspeople and the phenomenon of imitation, do not depend only on subjective will, nor are they the result of incitement: they are the outcome of actual conditions.
As can be seen, without stating the matter explicitly or systematically, Ibn Khaldun deals with all aspects of the reproduction of values in Muslim society. He begins by assuming, in a sort of philosophical anthropological postulate, that human beings, who are endowed with the faculty of thought, organize their relations with the world and each other according to laws and rules that each individual learns through his or her own personal experience, and especially by impregnation from the family and cultural milieu. At the same time, he reveals deeper values, connected with the very functioning of society, whose reproduction occurs independently of individual wills.
Lastly, it is important to note that Ibn Khaldun brings up twice, although both times in an incidental manner, the matter of the inculcation of religious values. Speaking of the consequences of Koranic instruction on mental development, he points out that it has become ‘the symbol of Islam in all Muslim cities’, as it allows articles of faith to be inculcated in the heart of the child from the tenderest age. In his analysis of the methods practiced in the various regions of the Muslim world he stresses the ‘total’ linguistic ‘deficiency’ to which precocious Koranic instruction leads, particularly when it is unique and exclusive, as it was in the North Africa.
He approves, at least in theory, of the reforms proposed by Abu Bakr Ibn al-Arabi, whereby the child would first be taught language and the rules of calculation, but he finds that such ideas clash with habits too deeply ingrained to allow those ideas to be implemented,19 thereby confirming one of the structural features of the Islamic education system, namely that of the basically religious nature of the instruction given to children and of the discontinuity between that instruction and the training of scholars.
Moreover, when examining the matter of faith and works in the chapter he devotes to theology, Ibn Khaldun gives a personal interpretation of it based on his theory of habitus (malaka, see ‘Learning the Arts’ below). In substance, he says that what is required in faith and works is not just a formal declaration or mechanical gesture but a ‘knowledge of state’, a ‘permanent disposition’, an ‘indelible coloring’ of the soul.20 The essential task of the religious institution is to lead the individual towards such a realization. Ibn Khaldun leaves it up to men of religion to determine and describe the exact practical rules and procedures.
TRAINING IN KNOWLEDGE AND KNOW-HOW
Ibn Khaldun deals with the learning of trades and the teaching of the sciences in connection with the ‘means of existence’ argument and the general table of the sciences of his time that drawn up in the last and very long chapter of the Muqaddima. It is not certain that he would agree with our reconciliation of the two, since he sees technology as a field of knowledge and of thought linked to action and consequently inferior to science, which is pure speculation.
In Ibn Khaldun’s theory of society the development of the arts (i.e. the trades, in the language of the period) and the sciences corresponds at the human level to the perfection of the spiritual nature and at the social level to the final stage of the gradual transition of society from the rural order to the urban order. The gulf between the rural and urban worlds is perceived as a natural consequence of the passage from the ‘necessary’ to the ‘superfluous’, from the ‘simple’ to the ‘complex’. Rural society, being satisfied with the necessary, cultivates only the simplest of the arts, such as agriculture and weaving; it has no knowledge of writing and the sciences, and though at times some of its members may take an interest in such matters they can never reach perfection.20 In the cities, the arts and sciences develop as production expands and diversifies, as wealth increases and as a taste for the superfluous and luxury comes into being.2
The term art (sina a) is used by Ibn Khaldun in a very wide acceptation, covering even the vocational and practical aspects of scientific activities. The various arts, presented in relation to ‘the means of existence’, are classed according to their uses and their social importance before more systematic exposŽs are made on the main ones. The religious and intellectual offices, such as those of the judge, the mufti or the teacher, are placed on the same level as the other arts considered as ‘means of existence’. But, as Ibn Khaldun points out,23 though these are ‘noble’ as to their ends, they are generally poorly paid.
LEARNING THE ARTS

Ibn Khaldun limits himself here to two remarks: the arts must necessarily be learned from a master; they are highly specialized, and a person who masters one art cannot generally master a second. He does not conceive of technology as a body of knowledge independent of those who possess it. Technique, though understood as something at once practical and intellectual (amr amali fikri), is reduced to a skill that may be learned only by observation and imitation (naql al-mu ayana). Learning itself is seen by Ibn Khaldun as the acquisition of a ‘habitus’ (malaka).
He uses this concept, which for philosophers24 had an essentially moral and intellectual meaning, very widely to cover a vast field going from language to faith, the arts and the sciences. He defines it as ‘a stable quality resulting from a repeated action until its form has taken final shape’.25 Habitus are like gradually formed ‘colors’ of the soul. They take shape when a person is still in his or her ‘state of natural simplicity’. Once the soul acquires a given aptitude it loses its primary simplicity, its readiness weakens and its capacity to assimilate a second aptitude diminishes. We shall return to this important concept later.
THE TEACHING OF THE SCIENCES
The ideas developed by Ibn Khaldun on teaching belong to his encyclopedic presentation of the sciences. This opens with a theory of knowledge and a general presentation of the socio-historical and epistemological bases of scientific development. Then the sciences, categorized as the rational-‘those that people can apprehend by virtue of the very nature of thought’26-and the traditional- ‘those founded upon authority’27-are described as to their subjects, their methods, their results and their historical development. Teaching is approached at the end of this enumeration and before the sections on language, the learning of language and the various forms of literary production. Two sides can be distinguished to Ibn Khaldun’s presentation, one covering the principles of teaching, the other its methods and content. The learning of language is dealt with separately.
CONDITIONS FOR TEACHING
At birth, says Ibn Khaldun, we are entirely devoid of knowledge; we are still no more than ‘raw material’. We then gradually gain ‘form’ ‘thanks to the knowledge we acquire through our organs’. Essentially ignorant, we fulfill ourselves as human beings only through knowledge. Ibn Khaldun distinguishes three types of knowledge corresponding to as many ‘degrees of thought’. There is practical knowledge, the product of ‘the discerning intelligence’, which allows us to act in the world in a controlled fashion; then ‘a knowledge of what we must or must not do and of what is good or evil’, which we acquire through our ’empirical intelligence’ and which guides us in our relations with our fellows; and, lastly, theoretical knowledge of everything that exists in the world, which we conquer by our ‘speculative intelligence’. Only this last type of knowledge, the subject of the sciences, gives us the possibility of reaching perfection of soul.28
The teaching of the sciences is necessary for two reasons: firstly, thorough knowledge of them requires a lengthy period of learning that can be carried out only with the help of teachers;29 secondly, their very development requires them to be communicated to others.
PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES
Ibn Khaldun’s pedagogical conception is based on the central concept of the habitus, mentioned earlier in connection with the learning of the arts. Whether it concerns the child or the adult, the practical arts or the sciences, moral or religious values, the aim of all pedagogical action is the formation in the soul of a stable disposition. Once it has been acquired, this disposition will not disappear. Ibn Khaldun often compares it to a dye that lasts until the cloth to which it has been applied is destroyed.
All habitus, says Ibn Khaldun, are necessarily corporal. He understands the habitus as something the soul can acquire only through the senses, as opposed to another type of knowledge proper to the prophets and mystics, which can be obtained only through the contemplation by the soul of its own essence. This concerns both the physical and the intellectual aptitudes, starting with the very fact of thinking.30 The formation of a habitus initially requires continuous repetition until the form is fixed. In order to obtain maximum efficiency, it must be a practice (bi-l-mubashara) and modeled on the most perfect exemplars with the help of the best teachers, preferably following methods of direct observation (bi-l-mu ayana). Ibn Khaldun thinks that the soul has but fairly limited receptivity (isti dad).
For one thing, it cannot receive several ‘dyes’ at a time; then, when it has taken on one of these, its capacity to receive others gradually diminishes.31 Training must thus start from the earliest age, when the soul is still virgin, ‘because the first things to be imprinted into hearts are like foundations for the habitus; and the building’s value is determined by that of its foundations’.32 Accordingly, the choice of content in the earliest instruction is of decisive importance. Moreover, in the field of the arts as well as in that of the sciences, Ibn Khaldun advises strictly against the teaching of more than one subject at a time. Moreover, he points out, observation shows us that ‘it is rare to find a person skilled in one art who is then capable of excelling in another and to the same degree’.33
Ibn Khaldun calls attention to another important factor in the formation of habitus, namely that of authority. An overly severe attitude on the part of the teacher leads to the most harmful consequences, particularly for young children. In this connection, he cites the situation of slaves, servants and oppressed nations. Constraint and oppression break the character, sap energy and in the end destroy their subjects’ capacity for realizing ‘their destiny and their full humanity’.34 He therefore recommends moderate use of authority and punishment, taking into consideration the personality of the pupil and the need ‘to instruct without afflicting the pupil and killing his or her spirit’. Finally, habitus can be either good or bad; they may take the form of either virtue or vice, good or evil, good taste or bad, refinement or crudeness, clarity and exactness or confusion. They also differ in degree, depending on the quality of teaching and of the models imitated and on the general level of development of the civilization.
Methods and contents
The question of the teaching of the sciences Ibn Khaldun approaches from his concept of the habitus. In order to master any discipline and fully possess it, he says, it is necessary to acquire ‘a habitus that allows the principles and rules to be grasped, problems to be fully understood and secondary questions to be drawn from principles’.35 The formation of such a habitus demands a rigorous approach in which must be taken into consideration the student’s ‘receptivity’ and power to assimilate, together with the quantity of information contained in the subject to be taught and its complexity. Ibn Khaldun considers that the process must take place in three progressive stages, whose object and means he is careful to explain.36
The first of these is a preparatory stage. Its object is to familiarize the student with the subject being taught and to prepare him or her to grasp its problems. This stage is limited to giving an overall view of the subject and emphasizing its main points. Explanations must be kept simple and general and allow for the student’s capacity for understanding and assimilating. The second stage goes deeper. Now the subject must be looked at from every angle and generalizations transcended. Explanations and commentaries must be exhaustive and all divergent points of view examined. The third stage is that of consolidation and mastery. The subject is again studied, in extensor, from the beginning, but this time the most complex and obscure points are gone into.
Ibn Khaldun lays great emphasis on the principle of the progressive approach. He says it is a serious error to begin by the most abstruse problems, as do many teachers who take no account of the student’s state of preparation. Such a practice is most harmful, as the student tires rapidly and becomes discouraged. Worse still, in the belief that the difficulties encountered are intrinsic to the subject, he or she turns away from and abandons it. Going further into the matter, Ibn Khaldun perceives clearly that the inculcation of a body of knowledge is inseparable from the development of the mental aptitudes necessary for that knowledge to be assimilated. As he points out: ‘At the beginning the student is literally incapable of understanding anything at all, except for a very few points that, in any case, he or she grasps only in an approximate and summary manner, when they are explained with examples drawn from sensory experience. Then the student’s readiness gradually develops: the problems of the subject become more familiar with every repetition, and he or she then goes from approximate knowledge to an ever deeper assimilation’.37
Ibn Khaldun supplements these general principles with a number of practical recommendations. He recommends to teachers that they present their students with consistent teaching material suited to their capacities, keeping to the works selected for the course and seeing to it that they are completely assimilated before passing on to others; not teaching two subjects at the same time, not stretching out the study of a subject over too long a period, in order not to break the interdependence between its different facets. He advises students not to ‘dwell on disputes over words’ and especially not to weigh themselves down with formal logic. ‘Indeed’, he says, ‘the only natural means of attaining truth is the natural readiness to think, once it is relieved of all false ideas and the thinker places his or her entire confidence in divine mercy. Logic is nothing more than a description of the act of thinking and in most cases follows it’.38
On the question of the content of science teaching, Ibn Khaldun limits himself to a few remarks inspired by the actual state of education in his time. He denounces three abuses: the overload of work imposed on students; the excessive importance given to the ‘instrumental sciences’; and the use of prŽcis. The sciences, particularly religious and literary science, had undergone considerable development under Islam, and Ibn Khaldun describes it in detail. In agreement with his contemporaries, he judges this development to have reached its apogee and its term.39 How and in what form should the enormous accumulated corpus be transmitted? During the preceding centuries sustained efforts had been made to devise adequate didactic forms: syntheses, treatises, prŽcis and commentaries.
For each subject there was a plethora of works available. Each school of thought or trend had its own collection, often with methods and terminologies that were peculiar to it. Ibn Khaldun wondered how the average student could be required to assimilate it all. Teachers, he suggests, should limit themselves to teaching their students the subject-matter of their own schools. But he barely believes in this solution himself, ‘owing to force of habit’. PrŽcis do not seem to him to furnish an effective remedy; on the contrary, they only increase the harm done. Intended to ‘facilitate memorization for students, they render the task harder for them’.
Ibn Khaldun makes two reproaches: by trying to ‘fit a maximum number of ideas into a minimum number of words’, they are injurious to the quality of expression and lead to comprehension difficulties; and they sow confusion in the students’ minds ‘by presenting them with the ultimate findings of a subject before preparing them to take in those findings’.40 Faced with such a situation, it is understandable that he should speak out against the propensity of his age to dwell on the study of the sciences described as ‘auxiliary’ or ‘instrumental’-such as grammar, logic and legal principles. These are theoretically only means to be placed at the service of the fundamental sciences that are sought for their own sakes. Thus, philology and arithmetic should serve the religious sciences, while logic and philosophy should be similarly available to theology. Too much time spent on the religious sciences is only further weighing down the burden borne by students and distracting them from the essential.41
This view of education is not seen by Ibn Khaldun as being linked to institutions or places. It appears rather as a private, individual matter at the level of each of its three components: science, teachers and students. The individual soul fulfils itself in and through knowledge. The invention and development of the sciences meets a spiritual necessity above all. Though perfectible, the sciences are conceived as constituting a closed universe, or at least one tending towards a certain completion. The greater part of scientific activity must be devoted to the task of organizing the various fields of knowledge into individualized subjects capable of being transmitted. Thus of the objects assigned by Ibn Khaldun to ‘the composition of works’, five out of eight deal with organization and the transmission of knowledge: definition of the subject, the systematic exposŽ of results, the righting of errors, commentary and summary.42
With the progress of civilization, science became professionalized, organizing itself according to principles and rules, making use of a specialized methodology and terminology; it was practiced as a trade. When Ibn Khaldun attempts to trace out a history of education, he concentrates on the sanad, i.e. the network of teachers, across space and time, who guarantee the quality of the knowledge transmitted. Moreover, the history of the sciences is essentially epitomized for him in that of the basic works that have been composed within each subject, with their main commentaries and abstracts.
Thus on the one hand, and within each subject, there are a number of established works; on the other, chains of authorities to transmit them: this sums up the institution of education. Ibn Khaldun barely mentions such places as colleges (madrasas) or convents (khanqas, rubut), which he considers only in the role of material assistance to students and teachers (board and lodging).43 Thus indirectly, and several centuries in advance, he confirms one of the invariable structural features of the education system in Muslim societies, namely the precarious nature of its institutions.
Source: The Message of Islam – Abdesselam Cheddadi


References


1.The author’s original title was ‘Education in Ibn Khaldun’s Muqaddima’.

2. Abdesselam Cheddadi (Morocco). Professor in the Faculty of Educational Sciences at the University Muhammad V, Rabat; former Associate Head of Studies at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris. Translator of the autobiography of Ibn Khaldun under the title Le voyage d’occident et d’orient [The Journey to West and East] (1980), extracts from the Kitab al-Ibar, under the title Peuples et nations du monde [The World’s Peoples and Nations] (2 vols., 1986), and numerous studies on aspects of the thought of Ibn Khaldun. At present preparing a new translation of the Muqaddima and of the History of the Arabs and Berbers of the Maghrib (to be published by Editions Gallimard, Paris).

3 . Cf. E. Gellner, Nations and nationalism, Oxford, Basil Blackwell Ltd., 1983, p. 11-18, 29-35.

4 . Cf. G. Makdisi, The Rise of Colleges, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1981; The Rise of Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1990.

5 .See H.J. Cohen, The Economic Background and Secular Occupations of Muslim Jurisprudents and Traditionists in the Classical Period of Islam (until the Middle of the Eleventh Century), J.E.S.H.O., January 1970, p. 16-61; J.E. Gilbert, The Ulama of Medieval Damascus and the International World of Islamic Scholarship, Ph.D. dissertation, Ann Arbor, University Microfilms, 1977.

6 .G. Makdisi, op. cit.

7. See particularly Ara’ ahl al-madina al-fadila [The Opinions of the Inhabitants of the Virtuous City] and Kitab tahsil as-sa ada [The Book of the Attainment of Happiness]. A profile of al-Farabi is included in this series of ‘100 Thinkers on Education’.

8 .See Kitab tahdhib al-akhlaq [The Book of Moral Education].

9 .See Adab ad-dunya wa-d-din [The Rules of Propriety for the Wordly Life and the Religious Life].

10 .A profile of al-Ghazali is included in this series of ‘100 Thinkers on Education’.

11 .E. Gellner, op. cit., p. 35-38.

12 .Cf. Muqaddima Ibn Khaldun, ‘Abd al-Wahid Wafi, Cairo, undated, Vol. II, p. 484-85; French translation by Vincent Monteil, Vol. I, p. 256-58; English translation by F. Rosenthal, Vol. I, p. 264-65, (hereafter designated as Fr. tr. and Engl. tr). All quotations from the Muqaddima given in the present essay were translated from Arabic to French by the author.

13 .Muqaddima, III, p. 1012-13; Fr. tr. II, p. 878-80; Engl. tr. II, p. 417-19.

14 .Ibid., III, p. 1012; Fr. tr., II, p. 878; Engl. tr., II, p. 418.

15 .Ibid., II, p. 478-81; Fr. tr., p. 249-54; Engl. tr., p. 257-61.

16. Ibid., II, p. 888 ff.; Fr. tr., II, p. 765 ff.; Engl. tr., II, p. 291 ff.

17 .Ibid., II, p. 474-79; Fr. tr., I, p. 246-51; Engl. tr., p. 253-58.

18. Ibid., II, p. 510-11; Fr. tr., I, p. 291-92; Engl. tr., p. 290-300.

19 .Ibid., III, p. 1249-53; Fr. tr., p. 1222-26; Engl. tr., III, p. 300-05.

20. Ibid., III, p. 1072 ff.; Fr. tr., III, p. 965 ff.; Engl. tr. III, p. 39 ff.

21 .Ibid., II, p. 935, 961; Fr. tr., p. 816, 847; Engl. tr., II, p. 346, 378.

22 .Ibid., II, p. 936-39; Fr. tr., II, p. 817-19; Engl, tr., II, p. 347-49.

23 .Ibid., II, p. 925-26; Fr. tr., p. 805-07; Engl. tr., p. 334-35.

24 .See Avicenna, for example, in Shifa’.

25. Muqaddima, II, p. 935; Fr. tr., II, p. 816; Engl. tr., II, p. 346.

26 .Ibid., III, p. 1025-26; Fr. tr., II, p. 897; Engl. tr., II, p. 436.

27. Ibid.

28 .Ibid., III, p. 1008-09; Fr. tr., II, p. 873-75; Engl. tr., II, p. 411-13.

29. Ibid., III, p. 1017-18; Fr. tr., p. 887-88; Engl. tr., II, p. 424-426.

30 .Ibid., III, p. 1019; Fr. tr., II, p. 889; Engl. tr., II, p. 426.

31 .Ibid., II, p. 942; Fr. tr., p. 824-25; Engl. tr., p. 354-55.

32. Ibid., III, p. 1249; Fr. tr., II, p. 1222; Engl. tr., II, p. 301.

33. Ibid., II, p. 942; Fr. tr., p. 824-25; Engl. tr., p. 354-55.

34. Ibid. , III, p. 1253-54; Fr. tr., III, p. 1226-29; Engl. tr., p. 305-07.

35 .Ibid., III, p. 1019; Fr. tr., II, p. 888; Engl. tr., II, p. 426.

36 .Ibid., III, p. 1243-45; Fr. tr., III, p. 1218-21; Engl. tr., III, p. 292-94.

37 .Ibid.

38 .Ibid., III, p. 1248; Engl. tr., p. 298.

39 .Ibid., III, p. 1027; Fr. tr., II, p. 901; Engl. tr., II, p. 439.

40 .Ibid., III, p. 1242; Fr. tr., p. 1217-18; Engl. tr., p. 291.

41 .Ibid., III, p. 1248-49; Engl. tr., p. 298-300.

42 .Ibid., III, p. 1237-40; Fr. tr., III, p. 1211-14; Engl. tr., III, p. 284-88.

43 .Ibid., III, p. 1021, 1025; Fr. tr., II, p. 892, 897; Engl. tr., II, p. 430, 435. Works by Ibn Khaldun

IN ARABIC

Kitab al-Ibar [The Book of Advice]. Ed. by N. Hurini. 7 vols. Cairo, Bulaq, 1867 (H. 128)

Muqaddima Ibn Khaldun [Ibn Khaldun’s Introduction to History]. 4 vols. Cairo, Abd a-Wahid Wafi, 1957. [The Prolegomena of Ibn Khaldun]. 3 vols. Paris, E. Quatremre, 1858. (In Arabic)

Shifa’ as-sa’il li tahdh ib al-masa’il [Satisfying Questions on the Correction of Problems]. Istanbul, M. Ibn Tawit at-Tanji, 1958.

at-Ta rif bi-Ibn Khaldun wa rihlatuhu gharban wa sharqan [An Introduction to Ibn Khaldun and His Travels in West and East]. Cairo, M. Ibn Tawit at-Tanji, 1951 (H. 1370).

Tarikh ad-duwal al-islamiya bi-l-Maghrib [A History of Islamic Countries in the Maghreb]. Algiers, W.M. de Slane, 1847 (H. 1263).

IN TRANSLATION

Les ProlŽgomnes d’Ebn Khaldoun [The Prolegomena of Ibn Khaldun]. Fr. tr. W.M. de Slane. 3 vols. Paris, 1863. Ibn Khaldun: discours sur l’histoire universelle [Ibn Khaldun: a Presentation of Universal History]. Fr. tr. by V.

Monteil. 3 vols. Beirut, 1967.

The Muqaddima: an Introduction to History. Engl. tr. by F. Rosenthal. 3 vols. Princeton, N.J., 1958, new ed. 1967. Nations et peuples du monde [The World’s Nations and Peoples]. Fr. tr. introd. and notes by Abdesselam Cheddadi.

vols. Paris, Sindbad, 1986. (Extracts from the ‘Ibar.)

La voie et la loi ou le ma”tre et le juriste [The Way and the Law of the Master and the Lawyer]. Fr. tr. from Arabic presented and annotated by RenŽ PŽrez. Paris, Sindbad, 1991.

Le voyage d’occident et d’orient : autobiographie [Travels in West and East: an Autobiography]. Fr. tr., introd. and notes by Abdesselam Cheddadi. Paris, Sindbad, 1980.

Works about Ibn Khaldun, education and Islam

Ahmad, A. The Educational Thought of Ibn Khaldun. Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society (Karachi), Vol. XIV, 1968, p. 175-81.

Berque, J., Ville et universitŽ aperu sur l’histoire de l’Ecole de Fs [Town and University: a Glimpse on the History of the Fes School]. Revue historique de droit franais et Žtranger (Paris), 1948-1949, p. 64-117.

Buhs, H. The Educational System of the Muslims in the Middle Ages. Islamic Culture (Hyderabad), Vol. 1, 1927, p. 442-72.

Bulliet, R. The Patricians of Nishapur: a Study in Medieval Islamic Social History. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1972, p. 249-54.

Keddi, N. (ed.). Scholars, Saints and Sufis. Berkeley, Calif., University of California Press, 1972.

Muhasib, J. At-Tarbiya ind Ibn Khaldun [Education according to Ibn Khaldun], al-Mashriq, XLIII, 1949, p. 365-98. Qurayshi, M.A. The Educational Ideas of Ibn Khaldun. Journal of the Maharaja Sayajirao University (Baroda), Vol.

XIV, 1965, p. 83-92.

Sourdel, D.; Makdisi, G. (eds.). L’Enseignement en Islam et en Occident au Moyen Age [Education in the Islamic World and in the West in the Middle Ages]. Revue des Etudes Islamiques (Paris), special issue, Vol. XLIV, 1976.

Tibawi, A. L. Philosophy of Muslim Education. Islamic Quarterly (Hyderabad), Vol. IV, No. 2, 1957, p. 78-89.

Source

Deceptive Media


If we talk about society and culture of Pakistan/Islam. We will see a very different picture than actual on media especially Pakistan or Muslim World. And what going on and what media showing and how many people are working to make it look this way like people behind this media. But question how long and how deceptive and why we should and why we should not get deceive from it.
And this Media will cover all aspects either its print, social or electronic Media.

People on media/electronic media are going against Islam Teaching and this percentage is above 95% and you can say majority of it. Though people may feel offended but I m part of this culture too. Like the way we dress up and we represent our culture through media and normal life. We are far away from teaching and commandments of Religion and Faith we follow. We may kiss Holy Quran/Books/Scripture but we will not act on it. The one we like or suites as will be followed and remaining we wont. Even we will never search out the truth behind of a matter.
We may Fear from People and World but we do not Fear from Allah/God Almighty. We are by born Muslim but not by Faith of selection and faith of the Right. Our names are Muslim but our actions are far away. Anyways I just wanna write so do not get offended with believes you have.  Media is home of falsehood and all channels propagating it under a propaganda. Why Muslims are so simple they can never understand any thing. and following a rejected life style blindly either of East or west. Islam is code of conduct and a Rule of Allah Almighty to follow. Kindly share positive and workout to propagate good and share positive.

Like whats going on and whats showing are all deception of times. Its not today but always in past and will remain in future. Look right and wrong and light and dark has always there. Truth will always prevail like light and dark has an end even how long it will remain and how dark it is.

This is a picture showing a exact picture of the situation going on.

I know if my country is doing this and I will feel offended. So its nothing I am doing wrong by sharing or disclosing a truth. If an evil is propagating in my land I will and I should write about it and will share to masses and let the truth speak to the world. Even people the people living on these countries do not know whats going on and they also shout/protest but still the Dark seems powerful and prevailing but not at all. A little light break its magic and there is no more darkness so starting it with high spirit.

The Media has not only to show the things to world but like a doctor we need to give a remedy for the victim/patient.

All looking but morally dead and working as an employee not being a human being. like showing a person killed and injured but do not do the right job. I am not saying all are same but majority.

Note:This piece of writing is not for offending and raising conflicts but a voice to know the truth.

Still Media is free as this link is claiming the world is free:

http://www.foia.cia.gov/

“Look they are talking about Freedom/Privacy/Rights and about information and they can live the way want in states even and they talking about Freedom of Speech and Freedom of choice and Freedom of Drones 🙂 But Above all they want people to live their way and freedoms definition as they define. Like Facebook owner Mark Zuckerberg also said

*We(They) are the norms of world and we will decide/define norm to world* 
Even people living and their own people can not live without this curse and the have to be part of the system. They can never Isolate them from this Evil Systems for Centuries but Only The Faith can work here for them.


So how to walk against the wind majority will walk beside the wind. Choice is always our and we may not always claim as the Majority was doing this so we should do the same. Consider the light and dark and you know the path. And remember light will make your inner satisfy and dark will never as its Hollow and you will be blessed with emptiness.

The Message you will always get from your unconscious/conscious/surrounding will always be wake-up and we always can not hideout and ignore it.But to walk and struggle for truth and remember we are always not on right side though we always and devil always make us understand we are righteous and will be blessed.

Stay Blessed. and Wake up.