Poliomyelitis


Poliomyelitis can be prevented by both the KILLED VACCINE(inactivated vaccine,IPV) and the LIVE,attenuated vaccine(oral vaccine,OPV).

Both vaccines induces humoral antibodies,which neutralizes the virus entering the blood and hence prevent central nervous system diseases and infection.

INACTIVATED VACCINE is preferred 4 the following reasons:

1:it’s current version is called ENHANCED POLIO VACCINE or eIPV.it has higher seroconversion rate and induces a higher titer of antibody than the previous IPV.
2:IT ALSO INDUCES SOME MUCOSAL IMMUNITY,IgA,making it capable of interrupting transmission….BUT…the amount of of secretory IgA induced by eIPV is less than the amount induced by OPV.

HENCE,OPV is preferred for eradication efforts.

LIVE VACCINE has some disadvantages;

1:rarely,but still it can cause reversion of the attenuated virus to virulent one and disease can ensue.
2:can cause disease in immunodeficient so not given to them prior to their T/M.
3:must be kept refrigerated .to prevent heat inactivation of the live virus.

VACCINE-DERIVED PARALYTIC POLIO(VDPV):

It occurs in those areas where the people are unimmunized,which is a common drawback of our community..so if vaccine given to such people it can cause some serious manifestations.

PREVENTION:

People should be treated by immunizing them with the ORAL VACCINE that would interrupt the fecal-oral transmission.

PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION with immune serum globulins is available for those unimmunized individuals who are known to be exposed.

THE DURATION OF IMMUNITY IS LONGER WITH THE LIVE VACCINE THAN THE KILLED VACCINE,BUT STILL BOOSTER DOSE IS RECOMMENDED WITH BOTH.

PLAN OF ADMINISTRATION OF THE VACCINE:

1:4 doses to be given at 2 months,4 months,6 to 18 months and upon entry to school at 4 to 6 yrs of age.

NOW,why some individuals develop certain complication upon vaccine administration??

ANS:because while the vaccine is prepared..cell culture used may be not screened carefully to exclude the adventitious viruses,which when get access to the human body cause complications like strain of SV40 virus can be found in non-hodgkin’s lymphoma..but if the cell cultures used to prepare the vaccine are properly screened then the rate of such incident can be controlled.

Special Thank to Kate Mil for Sharing this very first research 🙂

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